Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions and Policies to Prevent and Treat Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases

Authors: Thomas Gaziano, Marc Suhrcke, Elizabeth Brouwer, Carol Levin, Irina Nikolic, Rachel Nugent

Citation:
Gaziano, T., Suhrcke, M., Brouwer, E., Levin, C., Nikolic, I. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions and Policies to Prevent and Treat Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases. In: Prabhakaran, D., Anand, S., Gaziano, T., Mbanya, J., Wu, Y. (eds.), Disease Control Priorities (third edition): Volume 5, Cardiovascular, Respiratory, and Related Disorders. Washington, DC: World Bank. 2017.
Gaziano, T., Suhrcke, M., Brouwer, E., Levin, C., Nikolic, I. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions and Policies to Prevent and Treat Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases. In: Prabhakaran, D., Anand, S., Gaziano, T., Mbanya, J., Wu, Y. (eds.), Disease Control Priorities (third edition): Volume 5, Cardiovascular, Respiratory, and Related Disorders. Washington, DC: World Bank. 2017.
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Abstract:

The results of dozens of high-quality, cost-effectiveness analyses for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, respiratory, and kidney-related conditions and risk factors (CVRD) are categorized—much of it with country-specific data—by (1) and this chapter summarizes the available literature on population-level health and intersectoral policies to address the major risks in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and discussing some methodological issues in these analyses; and (2) assessing and discussing the cost-effectiveness of personal services delivered through various levels of the health system. Many interventions remain available for managing these diseases, which account for a large portion of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) globally. High-income countries (HICs) and some LMICs have seen dramatic declines in age-adjusted mortality related to these conditions as a result of many clinical and policy-based interventions, some of which have proven cost-effective while others need further evaluation. Clarification remains necessary on the diagnostic approach to targeting a single high-risk factor versus absolute risk, the role of patient compliance, and the potential consequences of large-scale medicalization for public health.